The birth of the Oral History Association of Northern Argentina (AHONA)
The development of oral history in the Tucumán province has advanced slowly relative to other provinces in the country. Although the last few years have seen a qualitative rather than a quantitative progress, young historians have begun studying the recent past of the province through the use of oral methodology and sources for their research. While far from the advances seen in other regions, in recent years there has been a noted increase oral history practice, both in terms of research and its use in the teaching process. Despite a certain and continued resistance in traditional academic circles, a number of graduate theses using oral sources have begin to appear, indicating that young historians have begun to break the mold. Indeed, they should be encouraged to think not just that oral history is not only possible and –more importantly—necessary for the coverage of certain historical periods of the province.
The need to recover the memory of the recent past is highlighted by the bloody dictatorial repression that the province suffered. At the same time, it is marked by the development and installation of the Bussismo government after the dictatorship fell in 1983. The arrival to power of Antonio Domingo Bussi (de facto governor during the last military dictatorship) following the elections of 1995, slowed down historiographical progress being made in reviewing the province’s recent past. Although a number of research projects completed prior mid-1990s referred to the history of repression in Tucumán, mainstream academic circles resisted such work. Nevertheless, from the first judicial defeat of Bussi in 2003, which prevented him from taking over as mayor of the city of San Miguel de Tucumán, new perspectives began to make their way into studies of the recent past of the province.
Research using oral sources began to gain ground in the various academic domains with the emergence of the Oral History Association of the Argentinean Republic (la Asociación de Historia Oral de la República Argentina ) in December 2004, and the incorporation into its steering committee of regional researchers. Through courses and the conclusion of several projects (although still tentative in nature) oral history has began to be received positively, little by little, by the collective of local historians. In this context, the imperative for collective action arose. As a result, a group of young historians from the Tucumán and Salta regions began meeting which led to the creation of an association of oral history practitioners. This action mirrored the experiences of other regions in the country and abroad. Oral history associations in Brazil, Argentina or Mexico, showed the path and served not only as an example but as a stimulus to this nascent group. Thus, on 9 May 2009, following an initial foundational meeting, the Oral History Association of Northern Argentina was born. In its founding act includes the following:
- Create the framework for the meeting of researchers who work on the recent regional history using the methodology of oral history.
- Produce an academic space, plural and democratic in nature, to debate and disseminate oral history, in addition to the recent history of our northern region of the country.
- Establish a dialectical relationship between the association and the community (a social function).
While simultaneously looking to consolidate the historiographical task and realizing the need to renovate the practice in Northern Argentina, the newly born association decided to make itself public on 1 July 2009, the date Argentina celebrates the “day of the historian,” a commemoration adopted by the Congress of the Nation. Looking to the future, the first steps will be to make the association known and to strengthen links with other oral history associations in the country and on the continent. At the same time, work will be carried out on the establishment of its legal status so that it will be possible to consolidate and realize the objectives set. At this point, AHONA has its own website which serves as the communication platform: www.ahona.com.ar
The signatories of the foundational act were: Gustavo Cortés Navarro, Rubén I. Kotler, Gustavo Correa, Antonio Massa, Walter Soria, Melina Lazarte Bader, Lucila Galíndez, Miguel Bounar, Tomás Díaz and René Álvarez.
AHONA hopes to add other signatories and to consolidate the core group of Northern Argentina. Although an ambitious project, we whom have formed the Association believe that it is possible and necessary to do so. We hope in this way to contribute to the growth of the historiographical discipline in the continent, helping to recover the memory of our recent past and revaluing the voice of the neglected social agents of our societies.
Rubén Kotler | www.ahona.com.ar
A Mosaic on Jewish Immigration in Argentina. Technical School ORT / Dickinson College. 10 August 2009
Dickinson College, following the philosophy of the universities of the liberal arts, forges an interdisciplinary education for its students, both in the diversity of the materials that make up the curriculum, as in the opportunities afforded the students to immerse themselves in cultures which are not their own. To support these initiatives, Dickinson teachers are given resources and receive academic acknowledgement when proposing projects which give incentive for such cultural interchange.
One of the exchange possibilities that Dickinson offers are mosaics. These are projects that collect, value and recover a unique cultural legacy based on of specific topic and in relation to concrete group. In the past, mosaics have been completed on Mexican immigration to the United States as well as comparatively between black South Africans, African-Americans and the civil rights movement in the United States, among others. Mosaics are often organized into two stages. The first trimester is theoretical in nature and focuses on mosaic themes while the second deals with material obtained. Between the two semesters, core material of the mosaic is acquires. During this time, a period of intensive fieldwork (generally, two weeks) is taken on; students move into the community and oral interviews are obtained. They also delve into different aspects of cultural patrimony that is highlighted in the mosaic. Second term assignments consists of reviewing and evaluating this patrimony. This work ranges from simple transcripts to documentaries, conference papers and photographic presentations in different communities as well as projects contemplating the continuation of the Mosaic’s archive in the future.
This year, Dickinson College professors Shalom Staub (Religion), Susan Rose (sociology) and Andrea Lieber (Jewish Studies) have proposed creating a mosaic concerning Jewish immigration in Argentina, with the support of of Dickinson College’s Community Studies Center and a Posen research grant. This has allowed Lieber to internationalize the academic study of Jewish communities. Following the described structure, the mosaic will take on the following form:
First semester (August to December 2009: theoretical preparation). Students will simultaneous take two courses. The first, led by Professor Staub concerns Jewish ethnography. It will look into issues concerning identity and culture in the Jewish diaspora, focusing on Jewish identity in South America. The second course, taught by Susan Rose is entitled “Oral History and Jewish Immigration in Latin America,” will cover the practical aspects in preparing students for participating in the mosaic. These classes will partially be taught by Laura Benadiba in a special visit to Dickinson to train students and faculty between November 12 and December 1.
After the first semester, the Dickinson team of students and teachers will travel to Argentina in December 2010 where they will be placed in groups alongside students from the ORT. Interviews will be carried out both in Buenos Aires and in the interior. Activities will also be organized during the two week trip that will help Dickinson and ORT students participate in the mosaic and help them understand the scope and potential of this patrimony.
This aspect of the project will be coordinated from the ORT school by Laura Benadiba. During this time, teaching will be assisted by members of the ORT’s Oral History archive as well as former ORT students. Students and former students participating in the project are Lucia Dana, Daniel Dana, Nayla Levy, Sabrina Mana, Abigail Feldstein, Nicolás Kovalsky, Federico Kreimberg, Gabriela Horwitz, Leila Alonso, Sabrina Ferder, Uriel Katz, Jaia Cates, Ariel Pasijoff, Giselle Arena, Yesica Wejcman, Daniela Lin, Ivan Wrobel, y Sebastián Chalom. Gabriela Uassouf, a Dickinson student and ORT alumna) will also participate.
During the second semester (February to May 2010) Finally, Dickinson students will return to the United States with the material collected and will treat them as described. The dissemination of the completed work concerning the Jewish experience in Argentina and the joint project between Dickinson and the ORT will be presented in diverse and important academic spheres such as local, national and international conferences and publications.
Research group members involved with this mosaic intend to continue working on this project. This will be achieved through creating new student groups in Argentina and the United States as well as through forging new avenues for the research and appreciation of a cultural patrimony that we have obtained through studying the memories of our ancestors. The unique aspect of this mosaic about Jewish migration in Argentina is the possibility for students to relate to their own past. AS a result, this history is not only understood a as a national or community legacy but also as something familiar and intimate. One possible continuation for this project might be, for example, a comparison between Jewish migrations to Argentina and the United States. This truly would be a exceptional project about a topic that has not been adequately studied.
Laura Benadiba | [email protected]
AISO (Italian Association of Oral History)
Italian Oral History Association) was formed in Rome in 2006, in response to IOHA’s invitation to Italian oral historians, on the occasion of the Rome International Oral History Conference (2004) to establish an organization in order to gather, organize and coordinate Italy’s many individuals and structures working with oral sources. AISO membership is open to individuals and organizations or institutions that support its respond its research aims and methods. The board and the president are elected every two years, and are responsible for the association’s scientific orientation. At present, AISO’s president is Gabriella Gribaudi, professor of Contemporary History at Naples’ Federico II University.
AISO’s office is located at the Casa della Memoria e della Storia (House of Memory and History), in spaces provided by the Circolo Gianni Bosio, in via San Francesco di Sales 5, 00186 Rome. The Association has created a website, which includes a section where one can hear researchers’ presentations at its seminars; a section on research tools and methods; and one with news and information (www.aisoitalia.it)
In 2006-2007, AISO promoted a national conference and a seminar on collecting and using oral sources in historiography, with contributions from scholars from all over the country. In 2008, the Association held a workshop on the use of audiovisual means for the history of ’68. In 2009, it organized an international conference at the university of Padua, on “The Memory of Work.”
Since March, 2008, AISO publishes an on-line Bollettino informativo, which includes news, feature articles, book ad media reports. From 2008, AISO presents a teaching seminar, “Learning to Record,” which offers technical guidance for recording, archiving and indexing oral sources.
FirstRegular Meetingof the Nicaraguan Oral History Association [La Asociación Nicaragüense de Historia Oral (ANIHO)]
We continue making progress in the process of consolidating the practice of Oral History in Nicaragua. This progress comes at a time when we are preparing ourselves to celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of the Popular Sandinista Revolution over nine days of remembrance of this milestone for our people. It is for this reason that on the 10 July, a large group of educators and specialists from the social sciences gathered to form the Oral Historian’s Association. This effort is made for those who have manifested their interest, such as those who were present at the “Third International Meeting of Oral History: rescuing the memory of our people“ held in February. At that event we undertook not to give up on this path of remembrance. At that meeting, historians, anthropologist, archaeologists, psychologists, sociologists, teachers, lawyers, philologists and culturologist gathered from various institutions around the country. Amongst them we can highlight the presence of individuals from the University of UNAN– Managua, UNAN– León, the UPOLI, the MINED, the Central Bank, the Municipal Council of Managua, independent professionals, unemployed citizens, as well as students in their final years of historical studies.
There were one hundred and ten participants at the event,. This number does not include additional attendants who (because of other commitments) were unable to attend the whole event. This brought the total number of participants to approximately one hundred and twenty.
All items on the day’s agenda were addressed, including the discussion and approval of the statutes and regulations. The electoral committee was constituted and Rafael Casanova of the Central Bank, Gloria López (anthropologist, lawyer and historian, UNAN Managua), and Indira Hernández (historian, UNAN Managua) were incorporated into the organization. The commission also guided the election of the board of directors, being made up mostly of members of the Provisional Board, which has three months to prepare the assembly (28 March). It was sworn in by the President of the Electoral Commission.
The Board of Directors was established with the following members:
Dra. Jilma Romero Arechavala – President (UNAN-Managua)
Msc. Ricardo Baltodano – Vice President (UPOLI)
Lic. Julia Vargas – Secretary (Independent Producer)
Msc. Manuel Guevara – First Board Member (Military Academy)
Msc. Urias Ramos – Second Board Member (MINED-UNAN)
Lic. María Elena Medina – Third Board Member (UNAN-León)
Msc. Igmer Morales – Fourth Board Member (Mayer of Managua)
Bra. Rosa Esmeralda Tenorio Fifth Board Member (Student in History)
Ileana Gadea – Treasurer (Independent Professional)
We now we need to proceed with the work of completing the relevant administrative documentation required by the relevant authoritative bodies such as the Government and National Assembly to achieve legal status. This will make it possible to continue working for this country that requires of each and every one of us an effort in recovering our cultural patrimony.
Following are some photos which reveal the attendance at the event and its atmosphere.
Jilma Romero Arechavala|[email protected]
SPAIN – CATALONIA
Oral Sources as a Pedagogical Resource. Teaching Practice and the Use of the Internetwww.presodelescorts.org
As educators and professionals of secondary level instruction, we believe that historians must help promote a critical consciousness among our students in a close and vibrant manner, enticing them to thing for themselves. We discard learning based on memorization and lack of critical approach of a list of past events that will be then forgotten after a while. According to the principles transmitted by Professor Josep Fontana (La construcció de la identitat. Barcelona, 2005)we believe what makes our discipline so engaging is the teaching conducive to thought and reasoning, teaching students to learn how to learn.
Our long standing eperience has demonstrated that encouragement and motivation is the necessary premise for learning. Because of this, the crafting of research on the recent history, through primary sources, written, oral, or visual, can be a good way to create empathy and interest on a proposed theme. However, it is also an act of justice, and our commitment to give voice to the true main characters of our history, the individuals who have lived it. In this manner we contribute to the knowledge of silenced facts and phenomena from the recent past, as it is the everyday life, lives of women, children eternally ignored, or aspects of the franquoist or postfranquoist repression still hidden and that have not been exposed or that are still not reflected on the official academic curricula or in textbooks.
On the other hand we must give consideration to the reality of our student body at the beginning of the 21st Century, their prior concepts and knowledge, their interests, abilities, hobbies, that are the result of the technological perspective of the society with values and practices very different from our own phase of learning and initial years as instructors. It is time to consider the evidence of change should move us to transform our teaching methods, if what we want is the acquisition of reasoned knowledge through analysis and reflection. Exploring the virtual world of the Internet, we decided to organize during the academic year 2007-2008 a series of activities related to materials developed by the historian Fernando Hernández Holgado in his websitewww.presodelescorts.org(see “Presodelescorts.org. New Technologies and History.IOHA Newsletter, Vol. 15: 1, January 2007).In these webpages we discovered the voices and testimonies of imprisoned women, the true protagnists of this space, as they constitute the sight that enlightens, humanizes and enricheswith meaning the rest of the documentary evidence of this study on the Barcelona prision of Les Corts (1939-1955). The interviews captures in the section voices, recorded with ten former prisoners, are extremely moving and filled with experiences, constituting a truthful image of the sad reality of the franquoist period of the immediate aftermath of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).
The uniqueness of this website allows us to explore the use of oral sources directly working the transcriptions. Hitorian Fernando Hernández provides short fragments of interviews that he carried our to these former prisoners, as well as the complete transcription and recording, where they remember the agony of the war and dictatorship, the humiliation and endless strategies they used to be able to survive after being defeated. The great difficulties they suffered throughout these years generate many emotional themes that can be of interest and empathy among the boys and girls in our classrooms.
This enable us to carry on with a different a different type of work compared to work around the interview of one or two testimonies only. The transcription and analysis of testimonies allow for a synthesis of the different aspects of the repression. Students can find common aspects of lived experiences of the prisoners as well as exile, concentration camps, imprisonment, torture, death sentence, everyday life in prison, clandestine resistance. To facilitate this work, we offered in the section of resources of the website a grid simplifying the transcription of the interview, allowing users to approach common themes across. (http://www.presodelescorts.org/ca/node/315)
Our experience has shown, besides, that the utilization of the internet to conduct research by pur students has served as a reference and stimulation to look for their own testimonies, it has enable them to conduct their interviews in a rigorous and planned manner, finding their own oral sources.
With this we have corroborated the appropriateness and validity of this methodology in the learning of history. The contact with the website www.presodelescorts.org has given our students new possibilities to conduct research in their immediate context, because the interaction between facts, main characters, and the researcher creates an interest that is difficult to achieve with a different source.
Based on this information, we encourage researchers utilizing the methodology of oral history to utilize the virtual space to disseminate their work, since we have shown the success in its use in the instructional arena as a source of information that is useful, motivational and above all, constructive in the process of teaching and learning.
M. Victoria Rubio de Diego |
Carlota Falgueras Marsal |
Grupo Historaula. Profesoras de Enseñanza Secundaria
SPAIN – BASQUE COUNTRY
The CRIC Project: a presentation. Identity and Conflict: Cultural heritage and the reconstruction of identities following conflict
Recent conflicts in Europe and other places have highlighted the deliberate destruction of the heritage of “others”as a way of inflicting pain. At the same time, they have shown that we do not yet understand the processes in which the protagonists are involved. Hence, we also do not understand the long term consequences of these acts. The reconstruction of the patrimony is not, by itself, a question of architectural design or economic resources. What is in play is the revision and reconstruction of identity.
This project, financed by the European Union, has as its objective the investigation of the impact on processes of identity caused by the destruction of cultural patrimony and its subsequent post-conflict process of selective reconstruction. It is intended that clarification will be given to the empirical and theoretical relationships between the cultural heritage, the conflict and the identities. In particular, consideration will be given to how the destruction and the reconstruction process affect notions of belonging of a group and its identity over different stages, from the individual level to the pan-national.
Five case studies of different regions will provide diverse perspectives and historical depth, while the shared methodologies and the themes of the research will ensure comparable results.
- What conditions and ideologies motivate the destruction of cultural heritage and the selection of objects for destruction?
- What are the consequences at the local, national and regional levels of such destruction and the following reconstruction of certain parts of that heritage?
The historical and cultural context, including memory of the “patrimony that suffers”, is an important aspect of how a person gives sense to his own sense of being, to that of others, and the idea of being part of something. The study of the Spanish case will permit a detailed study of some of these relationships. This will be achieved through archival research, an analysis of the role of memory and how they link to the sites, in addition to viewing the emergence of sites and images as symbolic spaces of encounter or confrontation. The study will be carried out on a national and local level.
The Higher Council of Scientific Research will integrate two themes of the project. One will explore the process of mourning and its material manifestations. The other will explore the unwanted heritage within the context of the politics of urban space and its symbolism.
The Centre of Research for Peace, Gernika Gogoratuz, will work at a local level, exploring the collective memory of the bombardment, its integration into contemporary identity and the symbolic landscape and memorial that has developed in Gernika.
Gernika Gogoratuz, Research Center for Peace | http://www.gernikagogoratuz.org
The Gernika Gogoratuz Foundation
“Sharing European Memories”(Compartiendo Memorias Europeas)
The project “Sharing European Memories”was born with the objective of creating an international network where; young Europeans can become aware of their historical memory and the generations that have lived through times of conflicts and wars during the twentieth century, such as the Second World War, the Cold War and the Spanish Civil War. Through artistic and audiovisual media, this project seeks increase the value place on Europeans’ life experiences with the goal of learning from history and creating a common European citizenry. Through artistic work and production, this project seeks to collaborate in the reconstruction of the collective memory intergenerational dialogue will be encouraged. The expected outcome will be that youth will become aware of their cultural and historical heritage related these conflicts with the goal that these memories will be preserved.
This project is financed by the cultural program of the European Commission and led by the Comunitá Montana Unione dei Comuni Valle del Samoggia (the Municipal Union of the Samoggia Valley in Italia) with the participation of the following organizations: Museums, Libraries and Archives of Yorksire (UK); Stiftelsen Arkivet, (the Peace Traing Centre and World War II Information Centre in Kristiansand, Noruega); Spoleczna Wyzsza Szkola, (University of Lodz, Polonia); the Aragon Centre of Local Associations and the Science Society of Aranzadi.
Under the leadership of Francisco Etxeberria, Mikel Errazkin and Rosa Martínez coordinate technical and financial/administrative aspects respectively. The Science Society of Aranzadi is currently finishing this project, with the assistance of twenty-five students as well as the principal and vice-principal from the Anoetako Herri Ikastola Secondary School.
A preliminary foundation training session began in October 2008 and included methodological approaches and documents compilation skills as well as criteria used in project coordination. Following these workshops, Anoetako Herri Ikastola students began collecting interviews and histories the elderly, as well as documents and other material. After this research phase, students with try to translate the information gathered to various art forms such as historical narratives as well as drama, music and digital narrations. These were presented in Anoeta in June 2009 with the presence of the European partners in the project. With the goal of sharing the various collected memories, a large final event will be held in Italy in May 2010. Each participant will present projects undertaken with their students. All activities will be available in the projects website (www.sharingmemories.eu) and on DVD so that Europe’s youth can familiarize themselves with the various collective memories concerning Europe’s twentieth century conflicts.
SPAIN – NAVARRE
The project “Archivo del patrimonio inmaterial de Navarra (www.navarchivo.com).
Our multimedia archive was created to foment the study, preservation and diffusion of the local patrimony of Navarre, (Spain) and Lower Navarre (France) and consisting of sound, text and audiovisual documents. Patrimony is understood as a collective resource and open to everyone to enjoy. It seeks to include the biodiversity and ethnodiversity of different cultural landscapes from the past and present with a clear focus on the intangible, immaterial and ethnographical patrimony. This reinforces a patrimonial paradigm based on participation and is conceived as a pillar of collective memory and social identity. It gathers multiple testimonies as a sort of polyphony of testimonies, emotions, wisdom and memories. To achieve this, the archive uses a global anthropological perspective which includes a historical vision and an appreciation of literature. Based on this, the archive’s objective is to promote their historical, aesthetic, scientific, educational, symbolic, identity, and intangible patrimony value. In this manner, this archive can contribute to protecting the intangible patrimony through creating an inventory and catalogue as well as making declarations concerning areas or items needing special protection. These will also be activated in localities as a motor for sustainable development.
This project is coordinated by the Department of Philology and Language Teaching at the University of Navarre, with the support of the regional and local institutions. Local work-groups such as associations, town councils and independent researchers are considered collaborators/co-authors, along with research groups that the Archive has organized for fieldwork, computer formatting and research.
The sources are varied. In regards to audiovisual material, recording of seven thousand new interviews of the “tradition carriers” and the memories of elders are being done in high quality digital video. These recordings are systematically chosen according to census and minority representation and according to four cycles of interest: traditional festivals, life, work and daily routines. Beyond these new recordings, digitized video and audio interviews carried out by research groups, independent scholars, the media and laypeople. In these cases, a selection of historically and ethnographically valuable recordings will be made. A similar process will be made with graphic sources. Also being digitally recorded are older images (icons) moving images (sequences, professional and semiprofessional film, home film and video). Finally, in respect to written sources, official documents of ethno-historical value from official archives and personal collections are being used to complete life stories. Similarly, texts and bibliographic references from local monographs and joint studies are being incorporated.
The wealth of testimonies and information is organized into a interrelated triple index organized by location, gender and informants. This index is navigated through an advanced and “intelligent” search engine generating combined results. The genres are traditional and current (known as urban folklore). Under the traditional heading, one finds traditional poetry that includes the songbook [cancionero] and ballads as well as poems of repent, proverb, advice, declaration and toasts). Ethnographical documents include festivals, beliefs, superstitions, traditional medicine, medicine and oral history.
The objective of this intensive recompilation, classification and analysis is part of second phase that we are currently designing. This project will create a polyvalent and interactive tool for the protection, study and patrimonial “activation” of the archive that is coupled with scientific and cultural applications, such as a testimonial corpus and a method for generating documents. Another application in this project will be pedagogical, focusing on intergenerational, intercultural and interactive activities. This project can also be tied into sustainable tourism through the creation of cultural routes and audio guides based on integrating various patrimonial assets and resources found at the archive.
Alfredo Asiain| [email protected]
Oral History in Venezuela, traveling memory
Upon review of the trajectory of oral history in Venezuela, the chronological study leads to identify two groups: the traditional oral history and the new oral history group. In the first group the state was pioneer when it sponsored the creation in 1946 of the National Folkloric Research Service (SIFNE). The SIFNE was renamed several times, and transformed into the Center for Cultural Diversity. Its main objective is the collection, study and dissemination of popular culture. The work accomplished in the span of 63 years has kept a valuable archive of the word on oral tradition and folklore of Venezuela. Also participating in the preservation of the popular tradition, the Bigott Foundation, has developed since 1981 an important role by promoting workshops, audiovisual, and preserving them.
The second group begins the process of rupture and change in the nineties, providing influence with new paradigms. Public and private universities begin contributing to the understanding and explanation of the Venezuelan reality from the perspective of oral history. Among these institutions the universities the reader will find the following: Simon Bolívar (USB), the Andes (ULA), Catholic Andrés Bello (UCAB), Pedagogical Experimental Liberator (UPEL) Carabobo (UC), Simon Rodriguez (USR), the Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC) and the Cultural Heritage Institute, State of Zulia. In the middle of the decade, created the Center for Popular Research (CIP). These universities have created courses and seminars, undergraduate and graduate, created centers, research centers and lines of oral history and promoted the development of argument leading to degrees of Doctor, Master and Bachelor under this theory and method. Have been arranged traditional and digital archives to preserve and disseminate registered memory, including the Andean Memorial Museum (MUMCOA) and projects the Museum of Memory of Miranda State (MUVHM) Core and Memory Oral History Research (MNIHO).
Researchers in oral history, mostly taken from the field of ethnography, anthropology, linguistics, psychology, education, and some from the field of history, have staked a claim on the word and memory, discussing new and old concepts, methods, techniques, reinterpreting oral traditions, collective and historical memory, subjectivity, stories and life stories. At the UPEL, teacher training institution, oral history has allowed the explanation of the various cultural worlds in which the teacher works, contributing in meaningful manner to learning and teaching of history, based on experiences.
Throughout these decades the research has been disseminated in conferences, forums, workshops, conferences, books, articles, and in specialized journals and in doing so, has created an alternative historiography. Lastly, during the Third Latin American Oral History Meetings, held in Nicaragua in February 2009, Venezuela was selected as the official site of the IV Meeting to be held in 2011. This event will surely contribute to the formation of national and international links and also as a stage to present challenges and prospectives on oral history in our country.
Zandra Pérez Contreras | [email protected]
Pedagogical University Experimental Libertador (UPEL)